Electrically powered equipment can pose a significant hazard to workers, particularly when mishandled or not maintained. Many electrical devices have high voltage or high power requirements, carrying even more risk.
Electrical Shock Hazards
The major hazards associated with electricity are electrical shock, fire and arc flash. Electrical shock occurs when the body becomes part of the electric circuit, either when an individual comes in contact with both wires of an electrical circuit, one wire of an energized circuit and the ground, or a metallic part that has become energized by contact with an electrical conductor.
The severity and effects of an electrical shock depend on a number of factors, such as the pathway through the body, the amount of current, the length of time of the exposure, and whether the skin is wet or dry. Water is a great conductor of electricity, allowing current to flow more easily in wet conditions and through wet skin.
The effect of the shock may range from a slight tingle to severe burns to cardiac arrest. The chart below shows the general relationship between the degree of injury and amount of current for a 60-cycle hand-to-foot path of one second’s duration of shock. While reading this chart, keep in mind that most electrical circuits can provide, under normal conditions, up to 20,000 milliamperes of current flow.


1 Milliampere
Perception level
5 Milliamperes
Slight shock felt; not painful but disturbing
6-30 Milliamperes
Painful shock; “let-go” range
50-150 Milliamperes
Extreme pain, respiratory arrest, severe muscular contraction
1000-4,300 Milliamperes
Ventricular fibrillation
10,000+ Milliamperes
Cardiac arrest, severe burns and probable death
In addition to the electrical shock hazards, sparks from electrical equipment can serve as an ignition source for flammable or explosive vapors.



Employees working in areas where there are potential electrical hazards must be provided with and use electrical protective equipment appropriate for the parts of the body to be protected and the work performed. Protective equipment must be maintained in a safe, reliable condition and be periodically inspected or tested as required by Electrical Protective Devices. Where the insulating capability of protective equipment is subject to damage during use, the insulating material must be protected by covering with leather or other appropriate materials. Nonconductive head protection must be worn wherever there is danger of head injury from electrical shock or burns due to contact with exposed energized parts. Protective equipment for the eyes must be worn where there is danger of eye and/or face injury from electric arcs and flashes or flying objects resulting from electrical.
General Protective Equipment and Tools
Insulated tools and handling equipment must be used by employees working near exposed energized conductors or circuit parts if the tools and/or equipment may make contact with the conductors or parts. The insulating material of tools and equipment must be protected where it is subject to damage. Fuse handling equipment, insulated for the circuit voltage, must be used to remove or install fuses when the fuse terminals are energized. All ropes and hand lines used near exposed energized parts must be nonconductive. Protective shields, protective barriers, or insulating material must be used to protect employees from shock, burns, or other electrical related injuries while employees are working near exposed energized parts which might be contacted or where dangerous electric heating or arcing might occur. When normal enclosed live parts are exposed for maintenance or repair, the parts must be guarded to protect unqualified persons from contact with the live parts.

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